Training & Development as effective HRD Tool in Retailing Sector


Preface

Employee development is one of the most important functions of human resource management. Recent research suggests that employee’s development, opportunities provided by an organization, are not only helpful in shaping employees’ mindsets in accordance with and strategic objective of firm, these also have a potential to leave a strong impact on organization level outcomes (Whitener, 2001; Arthur, 1994; Huselid, 1995; Woods and de Menezes, 1998). Employee development is essential in maintaining and developing the capabilities of both individual employees and the organization as a whole. A central idea is that perceived investment in employee development creates conditions where employees believe that their organizations value their involvement and care about their skill enhancement and career growth. Training facilitates the greater commitment by employees towards the organization and, in turn, generates willingness of employees to go an extra mile for the organization (Arthur, 1994; Woods and de Menezes, 1998). Organizations in many parts of the world have now started to re-examine their employees’ needs for their skills enhancement on a regular basis (Useem, 1993).
Introduction
A reasonable amount of literature interprets a positive relationship between the turnover rates and the amount spent by an organization on training its employees. Although human capital theory (Becker, 1964) clearly states that a firm’s decision of investment in training is considered to be a part of its resource optimizing strategy, however, since this resource optimization is not possible without enhancement of employees’ skills, it increases their tendency to look for better opportunities elsewhere. For example, Green et al. (2002) argues that companies which train extensively, have to face relatively much higher turnover rates than those that do not. This is mainly because the trained personnel leave the company for better paid jobs where they can make better use of the skills recently acquired. Alternatively, skills enhancement also increases their worth and possibility of being poached by rival firms. When employees’ perception of alternative job opportunities increases (either as a result of “war of talent” or employees own “protein career” orientation) and organization on the other hand fails to provide substantial growth opportunities from within itself, there is a greater likelihood that it will increase their turnover intentions (Negrin and Tzafrir 2004). In this context, Thatcher et al. (2003) have conducted a research on turnover of information technology workers and found a strong positive correlation between perceived alternative job opportunities and turnover intentions. Similarly, Sieben (2007) also confirmed existence of a positive relationship between training participation and labor turnover.
Despite the fact that some studies have been carried out to examine the relationship of training with employees turnover rates, a large amount of existing literature considers the training and development of the employees indispensable for a firm’s success while ignoring the dilemmas associated with these training and development opportunities provided to employees. Generally speaking, training and development practices constitute one of the most important ways to assist personnel in gaining new knowledge and skills required to meet competitive standards (Tsai and Tai, 2003). Appropriate training and development practices are considered essential both for an employee’s career growth and a firm’s success (Martin et al., 1999). The literature addresses the issue from two perspectives. The first perspective suggests that without training and developing a firm’s employees, a firm cannot think of outperforming its competitors in today’s highly competitive business world (Tversky and Koehler, 1994; Victor Vroom, 1964; Bankston and Zhou, 2002; Backer, 1964).
Organizations do conduct both firm specific and general training programs for their employees (Benson et al., 2004) as investing in such developmental efforts reflects an organization’s commitment to an employee’s personal and professional growth (Wayne et al., 1997). A study by Gutteridge et al. (1993) found that organizational development efforts enhanced employee retention, employee skills and morale. Positive perceptions cause employees to believe in an alternative job opportunity between them and the organization, which makes them act in a reciprocate manner (Wayne et al., 1997; Lee and Bruvold, 2003). Several studies have found that human resource development practices affect the behavior and attitudes of employees (Guest, 2002; Edgar and Geare, 2005; Muse and Stamper, 2007). Moreover, Lee and Bruvold (2003) found that the investments of firms in training their workers contribute to the creation of positive perceptions in employees of the organization’s willingness to support their development. These perceptions are related to the psychological contract and are also mentioned in the context of social exchange theory (Blau, 1964; Eisenberger et al., 1986). In another study of fifty-three establishments in the US, training is found to be positively related with enhancement of employees’ skills (Colarelli and Montei, 1996). Another perspective suggests that investing in employee development may contribute to the increased market value of employees and hence increased turnover (Benson et al., 2004). Especially, investments made in general skills training equally increases the productivity of employees in organizations other than the incumbent firm (Becker, 1962). According to this perspective, training and development help employees to identify and obtain new skills and competencies that will allow them to move to new positions, either within or outside these organizations.


Company Profile:-
Pantaloon Retail Limited, now known as Future Retail, is India’s largest retailing company which operates multiple retail formats in both Lifestyle and value segments. The headquarters of Pantaloon Retail Limited, launched in 1997, is in Mumbai and operates all around India and has over 35,000 employees working for over 1000 stores across 95 cities in India. As India’s leading retailer, they serve customers in 95 cities across the country through around 10 million square feet of retail space. These operate through a combined retail space of over 2 million square feet. In the medium term, the format is expected to add 20 stores annually and reach out to a larger customer base in leading cities across the country.
Pantaloon retail inspires trust through innovative offerings, quality products and affordable prices that help customers achieve a better quality of life every day. Pantaloon retail is the flagship company of Future Group, India’s retail pioneer catering to the entire Indian consumption space. Through multiple retail formats, the group connects a diverse and passionate community of Indian buyers, sellers and businesses. The collective impact on business is staggering: Around 300 million customers walk into their stores each year and choose products and services supplied by over 30,000 small, medium and large entrepreneurs and manufacturers from across India. This number is set to grow.
On April 30, 2012 Future Group announced the intent to execute a full demerger of Pantaloon retail format from Pantaloon Retail India Limited [PRIL]. On completion of the demerger process, subject to necessary and statutory approvals, the demerged entity was to be automatically listed in the National Stock Exchange and The Stock Exchange, Bombay. Future Group also announced that the demerged entity, subject to necessary and statutory approvals, would invite an investment from Aditya Birla Nuvo Limited (ABNL). ABNL would subscribe to debentures amounting to Rs 800 crores issued by PRIL. On completion of the demerger process, the debentures would convert into equity in the demerged entity of the Pantaloon format. The existing shareholders of PRIL, including its promoters will continue to own shares in the demerged entity. Post demerger, the total debt of Pantaloon Retail will reduce by Rs 1600 crores.
Commenting on this development, Mr. Kishore Biyani, Founder and Group CEO, Future Group said, “They are honored to be associated with India’s pre-eminent and among the most respected business houses. They always had a great admiration and respect for the businesses developed by Madura Garments. This marks a unique coming together of brands and enterprise that will create significant value for customers, suppliers and all stakeholders. A Fashion Council, bringing in the leadership teams of Madura Garments and Future Group will aid and advise the management with the objective to fully leverage the strengths of Madura Garments and Pantaloon. Madura Fashion & Lifestyle is defined by its brands — Louis Philippe, Van Heusen, Allen Solly, Peter England and People — that personify style, attitude, luxury and comfort. These brands will join the reach, distribution and customer loyalty enjoyed by Pantaloon format across the country”.
Driven by aspirations, Pantaloon retail is fuelling a retail transformation in India and finding innovative ways to drive growth and their human capital is the first point of leverage. Pantaloon retail aspires to be an employer of choice in Indian retail - offering exciting new possibilities and encouraging people to rise up to new challenges every day. They engage people who are passionate about what they do, who want to make a difference in the lives of customers, and who live their brand pillars of Indianness, valuing and nurturing relationships and leading positive change.
Future Group’s diverse people initiatives are aimed to attract motivate and train their employees in many ways. They are looking for people who are passionate, adaptable, self-motivated, team players and who reflect their ideology - "Rewrite rules. Retain values". Future Group is an equal-opportunity employer. They encourage people to join them from all walks of life. To this end, they have implemented numerous training programs that provide their employees avenues for advancement. This has helped them identify and nurture future leaders and bringing fresh energy and perspective to the business. Every day millions of customers turn to Future Group to realize their dreams and aspirations to live a better quality of life. This means a Future Group associate’s objective is to help customers through the value they offer in their products, and the values they practice in their everyday work.
Keeping millions of customers happy takes exceptional service, knowledge and lots of work. At Future Group, they provide the training and development to their employees to achieve this goal.
The Future Group is made up of the following entities:



                                                
                               
              
                                                              

         
 Values of Pantaloon Retail
The Success story of Pantaloon Retail has been built on a number of core company values that have remained almost unchanged. These values are:
Indianans: confidence in their business structure.
Leadership: To be a leader, both in thought and business.
Respect & Humility: To respect every individual and be humble in conduct.
Introspection: leading to purposeful thinking.
Openness: to be open and receptive to new ideas, knowledge and information.
Valuing and Nurturing Relationships: to build long term relationships.
Simplicity & Positivity: Simplicity and positivity in their thought, business and action.
Adaptability: to be flexible and adaptable, to meet challenges.
Flow: to respect and understand the universal laws of nature.

Career at Future Group

Driven by aspirations, Future Group is fuelling a retail transformation in India and finding innovative ways to drive growth. In every business that it is in, in every engagement it has entered, in every relationship, its human capital is the first point of leverage. The employees give Future Group its energy, culture and ideas. At Future Group people are seen as partners in the nation-building process, shaping the India of their dreams. The far-reaching businesses of the group provide boundless opportunities to put knowledge and creativity towards this goal. But that’s only the beginning. Future Group encourages its employees to think independently, explore innovative ideas and make the best of India’s renewed economic growth. Future Group aspires to be an employer of choice in Indian retail — offering exciting new possibilities and encouraging people to rise up to new challenges every day. The group engages people who are passionate about what they do, who want to make a difference in the lives of customers, and who live our brand pillars of Indianness, valuing and nurturing relationships and leading positive change. Future Group, it seems, is committed to the growth and development of its human assets. With an empowering, entrepreneurial culture, it works with the passion and enthusiasm of our people for renewed success. Working with Future Group gives an opportunity to be part of a family with a unique culture and beliefs. Drawing from the vision of modern Indian retail, they have built a company that employees are proud of and customers and communities value. The Future group family includes over 35,000 employees from a large cross-section of social and economic strata. Employees are nurtured for the long-term, ensuring their passion and commitment leads to outstanding professional growth. Future Group has attained a leadership position in the retail space by promoting an environment of collaboration and meritocracy - an environment that makes challenges enjoyable and rewarding every day. The company believes that people give their best when they are satisfied with all aspects of their lives. With an inclusive and richly diverse workforce, it offers a vibrant, energetic and achievement-oriented environment. The community of the best and brightest professionals works as a collaborative team that is empowered to act in the best interests of customers.

HR Policies and Rules
Promotion Policy & Rules:
Promotion Policy and rules are applied to employees depending upon their ability of performing work, managing their skills and the level of experience.
Wage Structure:
Every Job has been awarded different wages depending upon the position of the employee and the responsibility levels which the employees take over. This enables the company to:
Provide competitive salaries for each job taking into account market rates.
Reward everyone according to their contribution.
The Salary ranges depend on the employees’ position type for performing the standard duties of their jobs. The company has set up maximum and minimum levels within those ranges to account for variations in experience and skill levels. The pay defers from Store Administered employee to Head Office Administered employee. The payment of the employees is directly given by the manager or it is deposited into the savings account which the employee holds. The Company reserves the right to suspend pay where an employee fails to notify about absence from work.
Reward Policies
Pantaloon Retail believes in sharing its progress and profitability and reward accordingly. They offer a range of benefits which are service-related, so they build up as service of an employee increases. Each element of the benefits package is reviewed regularly to ensure it remains competitive and maintains pantaloon as a leading employer. Some of them are:
Discount facility to employees of Pantaloon Retail
Healthcare Offers
Pantaloon offers following healthcare options to all monthly paid employees and their partners:
Private health insurance
Gratuity Scheme
Free medical treatment for the employee, spouse and the dependent family members.
Female employees can have Maternity leave - 84 days maximum on completion of 160 days.
Travel & Expenses
Travel is an integral part of work for many people. Pantaloon offers travel options and expenses so employees can travel in a secure and comfortable manner.
Social Activities
Pantaloon Retail provides the employees the scheme named “Seekho” which enables them to develop their skill sets and opt for any educational courses so that they can increase their productivity which adds additional value for the company development in future. Every employee of the pantaloon contributes small amount of money from their salary each month voluntarily to the pantaloon foundation which they can use for any emergency needs.
Lifestyle Options
Pantaloon provides following options and benefits:
Flexible working
Employees can avail advance of 7 days of all purpose leave during the probation period which will be adjusted in the employees leave balance.
Leave accumulation will be permissible up to 90 days period.
Only 15 days will be carried forward to the next fiscal year.
Corporate helpline - A 24-htheir confidential support service which help employees to manage stress, personal, traumatic or financial issues which are affecting their attendance or performance at work.
Health & safety rules:
Pantaloon Retail is committed to ensure the health, safety and well being of all its employees, customers and others who visit or work in their premises.
Company’s Policy on Health and Safety includes:
The Health & Safety Committee
The Committee members’ advice on health & safety policy who monitors employees’ effectiveness and reviews the key performance and take measures on a quarterly basis.
The Store/Site Manager
The Store/Site Manager is responsible for ensuring with Fire, Health & Safety Officer that Company Health & Safety Policy is implemented. This includes:
Suitable Induction and Legislative Update training for Fire, Health & Safety.
The prevention, investigation and the reporting of accidents.
The completion of ongoing Risk Assessments and maintenance of known hazard information.
Property, Development and Facilities Management
They are responsible for the provision of working areas, equipment and materials that are safe and don’t pose any risk to health.
Identification of Jobs and their Analysis:
Pantaloon Retail has around 35,000 employees who are working under different roles depending upon their qualifications. This means there is diversity in the Company distribution of work load as per the qualifications of the employees. There are three levels of Jobs in any company viz. Entry Level, Middle Level, Senior Level. These levels have their own Job description, Job Specification and the Recruitment and Selection procedure etc
These are briefly discussed as following:

Entry Level:
The entry level jobs at Pantaloon, for example the Stock and Inventory staff and others.
Job description:
The Stock and Inventory employees are responsible for shipping of inventory and supplying the inventory from the internal locations to the other departments.
Job Specification:
Strong Organizational Skills.
Multi Tasking ability
Basic computer knowledge
Strong Communication Skills
Must be soft spoken and must have a smiling face while treating the customer.
Able to work under pressure
Detailed recruitment and staffing:
For recruitment in this level a mass of people are required.
The company goes with advertisements in newspapers for walk in interviews.
The company chooses reference and consultancies for the recruitment of the employees as one strategy.
There are interviews conducted by departmental managers, store managers, HR heads and the team leaders respectively
Middle Level:
The middle level job is of a Store Manager who is supposed to be responsible for both the functioning the store and the management of the entry level people.
Job Description:
Minimum 3-5 years of experience in maintaining stores and performing the operational requirements.
Monitoring the entire store and planning about the future services and training the new employees in their work.
Must provide high quality customer service and must make sure that the employees working under him also provide same level customer satisfaction.
The candidate is expected to develop functional understanding of business as well as understand the way information about the workplace and scheduling the processes.
Good understanding of concepts such a Market basket analysis, Regression analysis etc.
 Job Specification:
Graduate (preferable in Retail Management) with strong Maths background
Business Systems Analyst Skills
An experience of minimum 3-5 years is required
Advanced Computer knowledge
Effective verbal and written communication skills
Project management skills and strong leadership skills
Ability to manage multitasks in very fast paced environment
Broad knowledge on retail business
Strong analytical skills
Must be able to make seasonal strategy of a product
Detailed recruitment and staffing:
The company puts up vacancies in the consultancies, news paper advertisement for walk in
The company then selects or shortlists the viable profiles and then starts the recruitment
Next, the interviews are conducted by the following persons one by one viz. department head, store manager, zonal manager, HR Heads.
Senior Level:
The senior level job is of Operations Manager who is responsible for all marketing targets for different groups and is responsible for the other high end activities in the organization.

Job Description:
Minimum 5+ years of experience in performing the operational requirements
Interviewing the lower level managers and making sure that all the employees understands the organization goals.
Must provide high quality customer service and must make sure that the employees working under him must also provide same level of customer satisfaction.
Must manage business operations activities and deliver results according to the organizational strategy.
Good understanding of concepts such as Market basket analysis.
Job Specification:
Excellent communication is required
Knowledge of business processes & their interdependencies
Ability to give short-term solutions to business problems from a business continuity point of view
Develop report and review on all the operations which are taking place under his control
Ability to develop long term solutions for business problems with a view on repercussions on the whole business
Leadership skills required
An experience of minimum 5+ years is required
Detailed recruitment and staffing:
Same process is followed while giving ads in the news papers and consultancies
The main interview is taken by the HR and then supervised by the directors and the BODs
Selection process
Finalization of the Candidate: Once a candidate is finalized, he has to submit the following documents:
Last salary slip
Last appointment letter
Reference check: After the submission of slip and the appointment letter, the candidate has to give the names and contact details of two professional references from his current company/any of the previous companies where he has worked earlier.
A telephonic call is made to the persons and the following is checked:
Education background
Professional Background
Personal background
Interpersonal skills for the formalities
Offer letter: After checking all the references, if the candidate is found suitable, the offer letter is given to the candidate for joining.
Review of performance
Line managers review performance continually in order to assess how a particular employee is doing. It helps employee in assessing themselves and look for further development.
Highlights of Equal Opportunities Policy are:
Promote a working environment free from discrimination, harassment and victimization on the basis of:
Gender, sexual orientation
Marital status
Race, color, nationality
Working Hours
Religion or Political views
Age and Disability
Training

Training is concerned with imparting developing specific skills for a particular purpose. Training is the act of increasing the skills of employees for doing a particular job. Training is the process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. In earlier practice, training programme focused more on preparation for improved performance in particular job. Most of the trainees used to be from operative levels like mechanics, machines operators and other kinds of skilled workers. When the problems of supervision increased, the step was taken to train supervisors for better supervision.

Training of personnel consists in providing them with the necessary facilities and opportunities to acquire knowledge develop skills and cultivate attitudes and behaviour for the efficient and effective discharge of their duties and responsibilities. Administrative skills can be grouped into technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills. Training should enable people to perform their present duties effectively and at the same time prepare them to shoulder higher responsibilities in the future. The ultimate objective of training for personnel is the improvement in the effectiveness of achievement of organizational objectives.

Each and every position in an organization calls for a certain amount of expertise in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes. The person occupying the position may not have all the elements. Of expertise required for effectively performing new technology or procedure or law. The need for training arises in account of the requirement of filling the gap between the skills and competences required for the performance of a job and the expertise actually possessed by the job holder. This gap can be filled either by institutional training or on-the-job training. The common method is to mount a course on the basis of the experimental wisdom. Hence, a training course conducted kin a training institution is generally looked upon as some kind of an isolated event. This is one of the reasons why it has not been possible to derive the maximum benefit from a training course. Institutional training is regarded as a break from the monotony of the job. No wonder ‘sabbatical’ was one of the objectives of some of the courses.

It is time that training is looked upon as a system. A system may be defined as a group of inter-related and inter-development parts or processes operating in a sequence, according to a predetermined plan in order to achieve a goal or series of goals.
For understanding a system or for setting up a system, one should start by determining the objectives of the system i.e. what the system seeks to accomplish. The inputs are to be identified and the outputs specified. In the light of the relationship between the inputs and outputs the different processes can be worked out. Suitable feedback must be obtained at the various stages, to ensure appropriate corrective steps at the necessary stages.
A training course is the training effort of an organization. It may be said that the trainees from the basic input, together with the other resource such as the physical facilities, reading material, resource persons, etc. The design and conduct of the course constitute the processes and the trained employee the output. The evaluation of the training course, generally done at the end of the course, is the feedback of the basis of which improvements are made in the subsequent courses organized by the institution. But this is a simplistic and crude way of viewing the training effort though it illustrates the systems concept of an institutional training effort with the untrained employee, the training course, the trained employee and the evaluation of the training course representing the input, the process, the output and feedback control.
A significant and meaningful approach for a proper understanding of the training effort as systems concept consist not in regarding the conduct of the training programme as the sole process involved, but in viewing the training programme as a link in the chain of professional development of an employee. If this view is accepted a systems concept of training would include the environment and organization in which the employee works. It will also include the identification of his training needs, and the other salient aspects such as the determination of training objectives, designing, the training program and its implementation and evaluation. The evaluation should not only cover the training imparted but the improvement in organizational effectiveness and achievement of organizational goals resulting from the contribution of the trained employee. Thus, the training effort becomes a total system of which the sub-systems are the different aspects outlined above.
Development
Management development is all those activities and programme when recognized and controlled have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in going so all likely to increase his potential for future assignments. Thus, management development is a combination of various training programme, though some kind of training is necessary, it is the overall development of the competency of employees in the light of the present requirement as well as the future requirement. Development is an activity designed to improve the performance of existing employees and to provide for a planned growth to meet future organizational requirements.

Management development is based on following on assumptions:
1. Management development is a continuous process. It is not one shot programme but continues though out the career of an employee.
2. Management development is any kind of learning that is based on the assumption that there always exists a gap between an individual’s performance and his potential for the performance.
3. Management development seldom takes place in completely peaceful and relaxed atmosphere.
4. Management development requires clear setting of goals.
5. Management development required conducive environment.

Training Need Identification for a company
Training need identification is a tool utilized to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity. Here the focus should be placed on needs as opposed to desires of the employees for a constructive outcome. In order to emphasize the importance of training need identification one can focus on the following areas: -
· To pinpoint if training will make a difference in productivity and the bottom line.
· To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve his or her job performance.
· To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues and bring about a match between individual aspirations and organizational goals.
Identification of training needs (ITN), if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. Also requiring careful thought and analysis, it is a process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity as people's learning is important to them, and the reputation of the organization is also at stake. Identification of training needs is important from both the organizational point of view as well as from an individual's point of view. From an organization’s point of view it is important because an organization has objectives that it wants to achieve for the benefit of all stakeholders or members, including owners, employees, customers, suppliers, and neighbors. These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities of its people, releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. Therefore people must know what they need to learn in order to achieve organizational goals. Similarly if seen from an individual's point of view, people have aspirations, they want to develop and in order to learn and use new abilities, and people need appropriate opportunities, resources, and conditions. Therefore, to meet people's aspirations, the organization must provide effective and attractive learning resources and conditions. And it is also important to see that there is a suitable match between achieving organizational goals and providing attractive learning opportunities.
Training need:
1.    Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instructions, guidance and coaching help them to handle jobs competently, without any wastage.
2.    Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher-level jobs (promotion)
3.     Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in job operations. In the face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity.
4.    It is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). It helps in the performance level.
5.    It makes employees mobile and versatile.
6.    It is needed to bridge the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands. It is needed to make the employees more productive and useful in the long run.
Training vs Development:
Training often has been referred to as teaching specific skills and behaviour. It is usually reserved for the people who have to be brought up to performing level in some specific skills. The skills are almost always behavioral as distinct from conceptual or intellectual.
Development, in contrast, is considered to be more general than training and more oriented to individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most often aimed towards management people.
Usually, the intent of development is to provide knowledge and understanding that will enable people to carry out non-technical organizational functions more effectively, such as problem solving, decision-making and relating to the people.
Distinction between training and development:

Learning Dimension
Training
Development
Meant for
Focus
Scope
Goal
Initiated by
Content
Time-frame
Operatives
Current job
Individual employees
Fix current skill deficit
Management
Specific job related information
Immediate
Executives
Current & future jobs
Work group or organization
Prepare for future work demands
The Individual
General knowledge
Long term


Thus,
                Training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers.
                Training tries to improve a specific skill relating to a job whereas development aims at improving the total personality of an individual.
                Training is a one-shot deal, whereas development is an ongoing and continuous process.
                The scope of training is on individual employees, whereas the scope of development is on entire work group or organization.
                Training is mostly the result of initiatives taken by management; it is the result of some outside motivation. Development is mostly the result of internal motivation.
                Training seeks to meet the current requirements of the job and the individual; whereas development aims at meeting the future needs of the job and the individual.

In other words one can say that, training is a reactive process whereas development is a proactive process. Development is future oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employees.
A checklist to avoid training pitfalls:
                Trying to teach too quickly results in frustration. It is not wise to push employees beyond their learning limits.

                There are limits to the amount that one can learn. It is recommended to teach segments of the job in sequential fashion in order to develop a greater appreciation and understanding of the whole job.

                All employees are different. This must be recognized when it comes to training. Since some workers learn faster or slower than others, these differences must be accounted for in the training programme.

                Practice makes perfect. There is no such thing as natural-born skilled workers. Adequate practice time must be provided for employees to develop their skills.

                As a supervisor, it is possible to know the job for which the employee is training so thoroughly that a new employee may feel inadequate or intimidated.

On- the- Job Methods

1. Job Instruction Training (JIT)

2. Coaching

3. Mentoring
                Career Functions
                Psychological Functions
                 
4. Job Rotation

5. Apprenticeship Training

6. Committee Assignments

Off-the-Job Methods-

1. Vestibule Training

2. Role Playing

3. Lecture Method

4. Conference/ Discussion Approach

5. Programmed Instruction
Training & Development in Pantaloon Retail
Pantaloon Retail is committed to develop its employees into skilled, customer-focused, enthusiastic and motivated employees. They provides the employees the scheme named “Seekho” which enables them to develop their skill sets and opt for any educational ctheirses so that they can increase their productivity which adds additional value for the company development in future. An employee is equally responsible for learning and development. Training is given as and when required e.g. the implementation of new systems.

Training People

Future Group’s diverse people initiatives are aimed to attract, motivate and train their employees in many ways.

These include:

Shishya

An initiative that provides an opportunity to develop and enhance skills and knowledge through various educational and learning programs

Seekho

An initiative, aimed at encouraging employees who are consistent performers to fast-track their career growth by completing their higher education (MBA) in the retail domain.

Happiness Index Program

A priority initiative aimed towards building a culture of employee-level conversations to achieve happiness through sensitivity and empowerment.

Vidyarambh

‘The festival of learning at their stores’ is aimed at building a culture of a knowledge-led organization.

Suprabhat

A residential program that has Processes & Games, Guided Meditation, Power Breathing Techniques, Understanding Bias Barriers & Nature of the Mind. Combined with timeless wisdom and innovative, contemporary management techniques, the program helps employees explore their inner-self in collaboration with the Art of Living Foundation.

L.E.A.P

Their Leadership Excellence Advancement Program identifies and develops an individual’s leadership potential.

Idea Board

Unlike a "suggestion box", the Idea Board is an open forum that offers a platform for employees to voice their ideas openly.

Genisis

Future Group’s Management Trainee Program aims to develop trainees into future leaders at the company through on-the-job training, project work and functional implementation.
Rationale of the study
Training is most helpful in imparting the technical and mechanical knowledge to the personnel involved in operative jobs. It enables the employees to get acquainted with jobs and increase their aptitudes skills and knowledge, adaptability and thus increases the reliability and validity of training programme. Training is a continuous process; it has to be continued as long as the organisation remains in business. Training and development cannot be segregated from each other; development is the end and training is the means. Development thus would include both training to increase skill in performing a specific job and education to increase general knowledge and understanding of the overall environment. Planned training and development programme will return values to the organisation in terms of increased productivity, heightened morale, reduced costs, greater organisational stability and flexibility to adapt to changing external requirements. Nothing exemplifies it better than the retail industry in India as it is now one of the booming sectors in this country from economic and employability points of view. Retail industry is manpower intensive and the requirement  of skilled manpower is high at different operational area like category management, management information system, supply chain management , customer interface etc. So, training must be systematic and a continuous tool for man power development on the basis of organizational needs. The main purpose of this study is to investigate this characteristic more precisely and testing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The major emphasis in this study is on the discovery of ideas and insights. The study is flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of the problem.
Research Objectives

To obtain the following informations in order to achieve the clear view of the above mentioned problems:
·         To determine need for training in the organized retail sector
·         To determine the frequency of training programme for employee efficiency improvement
·         To determine the effective training methods for  the retail  sector employees
Research Methodology used
Exploratory Research Study: Training requirements of organizations are changing dramatically. Competency based training is being accepted with organizations realizing that employee competencies span a wide range. Depending on the activities being performed, competency requirements should be applied effectively. Organizations should make training seem realistic, demonstrable and forward looking. Competency based training if administered properly helps in bringing improvement in overall organizational performance and a trained and competent workforce.
Since one always lacks a clear idea of the problems one will meet during the study, carrying out an exploratory study is particularly useful. Exploratory study will be carried out by conducting Secondary data analysis which included studying the website of the company and also going through the various articles published in different sources (magazines, books, internet, and newspapers) on Training and development process.  After carrying out initial Exploratory studies to bring clarity on the subject under study, Descriptive study will be carried out to know the actual Training and Development method being followed at Pantaloons. The knowledge of actual training and development process is needed to document the process and suggest improvements in the current system to make it more effective.
Sampling Methods:

To fulfill the objectives and to collect information, Convenience Sampling method was followed to select employees of different levels of different departments of Retail Outlets (Shopping Malls). 

Sample size:

Total 72 employees were studied from various departments.

The study involves survey for qualitative feedback through a well-structured questionnaire. Various statistical techniques have been used to process the data gathered from the employees and the results have been highlighted. Finally, conclusions, managerial implications, and limitations are provided at the end of the paper.

The expected contribution from the study

  • Identification of change of knowledge and attitude of the employees after conduction of training program
  • Reinforcement of the need for continuous participation in training programs by the employees which can contribute to overall development of human resources
  • Enumerating the support of top management to invest and conduct in training program for employee development.
  • Identification of right combinations of training methods for staff development in retail industries.

Results and discussions
As mentioned above, a simple and easy to understand structured questionnaire was administered considering the level of education of a substantial number of the sample respondents. The length of the questionnaire has been kept short in order to get quick response. The respondents had been informed about the purpose of the study and requested to cooperate. The study revealed that almost all respondents expressed their feeling about the necessity of various training programs to enhance their skill, knowledge and abilities.
Response Pattern
Like to attend training program
 Yes [64]
No   [08]
The response pattern clearly indicates that a whopping majority of employees are interested in attending training programs.
Necessity of training program
Yes [68]
No   [04]
It is clear from the above that maximum employees feel that training programs are necessary for them.


Mode of Training
Respondents were asked to express their views regarding the mode of training they would prefer. More than 50% preferred on the job training.
Suitable training program
Table I
Type of training preferred
Number
On the job
38
Off the job
14
Depends on the need
20

The study revealed that there is a mixed response with regard to the mode of training to be imparted to the employees of Pantaloons. Preference was highest for step by step instructions method probably due to their level of education and ability to acquire the required knowledge since most of the respondents are in the lower age group.
Suitable training method
Table II
Method of training preferred
Number
Step by step Instruction
24
Coaching/Lecture
09
Conference/Discussions
20
Programmed Instructions
19

It is revelaled that efficiency improves significantly after imparting training pointing towards importance of training in raising performance.
Efficiency after being trained
Table III
Response Type
Number
Increased
59
Did not increase
13

A good majority of respondemts feel that their performance level increased after unidergoing training.
Performance  after being trained
Table IV
Response Type
Number
Increased
61
Does not increase
11

On being asked about their preference towards level of training majority of respondents are in favor of smooth training methods. On probing further they revealed that it is easier for them to grasp the training related issues with which they may not be familiar as they generally have a short tenure of work experience.


Level of Training
Table V
Response Type
Number
Rigorous
21
Smooth
51

More than 62 % of the trainees feel that the organizational effectiveness increased after a training program.
Enhanced Organizational Effectiveness
Table VI
Response Type
Number
Yes
45
No
27

Since the study is concerned mostly with the shop level employees having very little exposure to organized retail selling environment, the justification benind this kind of response pattern cam be attributed to this factor. The entry level employees acquire the required knowledge and come out with innovative ideas.




Innovative Ideas
Table VII
Response Type
Number
Yes
49
No
23

73% of the respondents expressed that proper training helps build up team work which goes a long way in enhancing organizational effectiveness.
Team Work after being trained
Table VIII
Response Type
Number
Builds up team work
53
Does not build up team work
29

A good many trainees said that they would adopt new working methods after undergoing training which would be taken up at the organizational level.
Adoption of New working Methods after being trained
Table IX
Response Type
Number
Agree
47
Disagree
25

A whopping 87% trainees said they were highly satisfied after undergoing training organized by the company as they feel it not only help enhance their skill level but also their employment opportunities.
Level of Satisfaction after being trained
Table X
Response Type
Number
Satisfied
54
Disagree
18

Majority of the trainees seem to prefer other methods in comparison to ‘Step by Step Instruction’ method but it is more pronounced in case of trainees who have been in service for more than one year. More than 77% trainees who have less than one year experience prefer other methods whereas it is just around 45% where employees having more than one year experience.
Tenure of Service and Training Methods Preferred
Table XII
     Methods
Tenure
Step by step Instruction
Other Methods
Total
< 1 Year
16
20
36
 >1 Year
08
28
36
Total
24
48
72

 Chi square equals 4.000 with 1 degree of freedom.
 The two-tailed P value equals 0.0455. The association between tenure and methods is considered to be statistically significant beyond p<0.045 and the phi value is very low suggesting a weak association among the tenure and the methods of training preferred by the respondents (Ф= 0.2357)

Trainees who are less than 25 years in age are favorably inclined towards other methods of training but the intensity is quite less. On the other hand, almost 83% of employees who are aged more than 25 years prefer other methods.
Age and Training Methods Preferred
Table XIII
    
Methods
Age
Step by step Instruction
Other Methods
Total
<25 Years
19
22
41
 >25 Years
05
26
31
Total
24
48
72

Chi square equals 7.251 with 1 degree of freedom.
The two-tailed P value equals 0.0071
Ф= 0.3173
The association between age and methods of training is considered to be very statistically significant. The value of phi coefficient is not that high suggesting a weak relationship between the training methods and the age of the respondents though the chi square value is significant beyond p<0.007
It is very interesting to note that preference level is almost same for both the categories of training for trainees who have been educated till the 12th Standard. For Graduates and Post Graduate trainees the preference is overwhelmingly inclined towards other methods, 81% employees falling in this bracket go for the other methods.                       
Education and Training Methods Preferred
Table XIV
     Methods
Education
Step by step Instruction
Other Methods
Total
12th.Standard
17
18
35
 Graduate & Above
07
30
37
Total
24
48
72

Chi square equals 7.117 with 1 degree of freedom.
The two-tailed P value equals 0.0076
Ф=0.3143
The association between Education and Methods of training is considered to be very statistically significant since the chi square value falls in the critical region as such the null hypothesis of no relationship among these variables is rejected. The strength of association as measured by the phi value is moderately high.
Smooth training is mostly preferred by trainees who have been working for more than 25 years. The same is true for employees who have worked for more than 25 years, but to a lesser extent.
Table XV
     Methods
Tenure
Rigorous
Smooth
Total
<25Years
13
23
36
 >25 Years
08
28
36
Total
21
51
72

Chi square equals 1.681 with 1 degree of freedom.
The two-tailed P value equals 0.1948
Ф=0.1527
The association between tenor and level of training is considered to be not statistically significant.  Both the groups almost equally prefer a training method which is smooth. The phi value is very low which indicates a very weak association between the variables considered in the above table.
Almost 84% employees who are garduates or pot graduates prefer smooth training compared to 57% employees educated till 12th Standard.
Tenor of Training and Education
Table XVI
     Methods
Education
Rigorous
Smooth
Total
12th.Standard
15
20
35
 Graduate & Above
06
31
37
Total
21
51
72

Chi square equals 6.179 with 1 degree of freedom.
The two-tailed P value equals 0.0129
Ф=0.2929
The association between Level of Training and Education is considered to be statistically significant beyond p<0.012 and the corresponding phi value is relatively higher.
The Wilcoxon signed-rank test is a non-parametric statistical hypothesis test used when comparing two related samples, matched samples, or repeated measurements on a single sample to assess whether their population mean ranks differ (i.e. it is a paired difference test). It can be used as an alternative to the paired Student's t-test, t-test for matched pairs, or the t-test for dependent samples when the population cannot be assumed to be normally distributed.[1]
The test is named for Frank Wilcoxon (1892–1965) who, in a single paper, proposed both it and the rank-sum test for two independent samples (Wilcoxon, 1945). The test was popularized by Siegel (1956) in his influential text book on non-parametric statistics. Siegel used the symbol T for a value related to, but not the same as W. In consequence, the test is sometimes referred to as the Wilcoxon T test, and the test statistic is reported as a value of T.
Assumptions
  1. Data are paired and come from the same population.
  2. Each pair is chosen randomly and independently.
  3. The data are measured at least on an ordinal scale, but need not be normal.
Table XVII
Ranks

N
Mean Rank
Sum of Ranks
Satisfaction - Performance
Negative Ranks
18a
15.00
270.00
Positive Ranks
11b
15.00
165.00
Ties
43c


Total
72


New methods - Performance
Negative Ranks
14d
7.50
105.00
Positive Ranks
0e
.00
.00
Ties
58f


Total
72


Team work - Satisfaction
Negative Ranks
19g
19.00
361.00
Positive Ranks
18h
19.00
342.00
Ties
35i


Total
72


Team work - Performance
Negative Ranks
8j
4.50
36.00
Positive Ranks
0k
.00
.00
Ties
64l


Total
72


New methods - Satisfaction
Negative Ranks
25m
22.00
550.00
Positive Ranks
18n
22.00
396.00
Ties
29o


Total
72


New methods - Team work
Negative Ranks
6p
3.50
21.00
Positive Ranks
0q
.00
.00
Ties
66r


Total
72




Table XVIII
Test Statisticsb

Satisfaction - Performance
New methods - Performance
Team work - Satisfaction
Team work - Performance
New methods - Satisfaction
New methods - Team work
Z
-1.300a
-3.742a
-.164a
-2.828a
-1.067a
-2.449a
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.194
.000
.869
.005
.286
.014
a. Based on positive ranks.
b. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test


The Wilcoxon sign Rank Tests have been presented in Tables XVII and XVIII. The outcome of the test  reveals that with respect to Satisfaction – performance, Satisfaction – performance,  New methods – Satisfaction are not found to be significant implying that the data do not come from the same population. Though it is observed that for New methods – performance, Teamwork – performance and New methods – Teamwork, the responses exhibit significant relationship indicating the same type of responses provided by the respondents.
In statistics, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (K–S test) is a nonparametric test for the equality of continuous, one-dimensional probability distributions that can be used to compare a sample with a reference probability distribution (one-sample K–S test), or to compare two samples (two-sample K–S test). The Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic quantifies a distance between the empirical distribution function of the sample and the cumulative distribution function of the reference distribution, or between the empirical distribution functions of two samples. The null distribution of this statistic is calculated under the null hypothesis that the samples are drawn from the same distribution (in the two-sample case) or that the sample is drawn from the reference distribution (in the one-sample case). In each case, the distributions considered under the null hypothesis are continuous distributions but are otherwise unrestricted.
The two-sample K–S test is one of the most useful and general nonparametric methods for comparing two samples, as it is sensitive to differences in both location and shape of the empirical cumulative distribution functions of the two samples.
The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test can be modified to serve as a goodness of fit test. In the special case of testing for normality of the distribution, samples are standardized and compared with a standard normal distribution. This is equivalent to setting the mean and variance of the reference distribution equal to the sample estimates, and it is known that using these to define the specific reference distribution changes the null distribution of the test statistic: see below. Various studies have found that, even in this corrected form, the test is less powerful for testing normality than the Shapiro–Wilk test or Anderson–Darling test. However, other tests have their own disadvantages. For instance the Shapiro-Wilk test is known not to work well with many ties (many identical values). In practice, the statistic requires a relatively large number of data points to properly reject the null hypothesis.
Table XIX
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

Performance
Satisfaction
N
72
72
Normal Parametersa,b
Mean
.85
.75
Std. Deviation
.362
.436
Most Extreme Differences
Absolute
.511
.467
Positive
.337
.283
Negative
-.511
-.467
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
4.333
3.961
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.




Table XX
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

Performance
New methods
N
72
72
Normal Parametersa,b
Mean
.85
.65
Std. Deviation
.362
.479
Most Extreme Differences
Absolute
.511
.418
Positive
.337
.261
Negative
-.511
-.418
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
4.333
3.550
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.

Table XXI
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test


Performance
Team work

N
72
72

Normal Parametersa,b
Mean
.85
.74

Std. Deviation
.362
.444

Most Extreme Differences
Absolute
.511
.460

Positive
.337
.276

Negative
-.511
-.460

Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
4.333
3.904

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000

a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.

Table XXII

One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

Performance
New methods
N
72
72
Normal Parametersa,b
Mean
.85
.65
Std. Deviation
.362
.479
Most Extreme Differences
Absolute
.511
.418
Positive
.337
.261
Negative
-.511
-.418
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
4.333
3.550
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.


Table XXIII
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

Satisfaction
Team work
N
72
72
Normal Parametersa,b
Mean
.75
.74
Std. Deviation
.436
.444
Most Extreme Differences
Absolute
.467
.460
Positive
.283
.276
Negative
-.467
-.460
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
3.961
3.904
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.


Table XXIV
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

Satisfaction
New methods
N
72
72
Normal Parametersa,b
Mean
.75
.65
Std. Deviation
.436
.479
Most Extreme Differences
Absolute
.467
.418
Positive
.283
.261
Negative
-.467
-.418
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
3.961
3.550
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.


The K-s test is an alternative to Chi-Square test which is applied to test whether the observed frequencies on each variable are uniformly distributed. The null hypothesis is that the data are not uniformly distributed as against the alternative hypothesis that the data are uniformly distributed. The computed value of Z are found to be quite high and for this the null hypothesis is rejected beyond p<0.000.
In statistics, McNemar's test is a statistical test used on paired nominal data. It is applied to 2 × 2 contingency tables with a dichotomous trait, with matched pairs of subjects, to determine whether the row and column marginal frequencies are equal ("marginal homogeneity"). It is named after Quinn McNemar, who introduced it in 1947. An application of the test in genetics is the transmission disequilibrium test for detecting linkage disequilibrium.
Definition
The test is applied to a 2 × 2 contingency table, which tabulates the outcomes of two tests on a sample of n subjects, as follows.
Table XXV


Test 2 positive
Test 2 negative
Row total
Test 1 positive
a
b
a + b
Test 1 negative
c
d
c + d
Column total
a + c
b + d
n
The null hypothesis of marginal homogeneity states that the two marginal probabilities for each outcome are the same, i.e. pa + pb = pa + pc and pc + pd = pb + pd.
Thus the null and alternative hypotheses are
\begin{align}
H_0 & :~p_b=p_c \\
H_1 & :~p_b \ne p_c
\end{align}
Here pa, etc., denote the theoretical probability of occurrences in cells with the corresponding label.
The McNemar test statistic is:
\chi^2 = {(b-c)^2 \over b+c}.
The statistic with Yates's correction for continuity given by:
\chi^2 = {(|b-c|-0.5)^2 \over b+c}.
An alternative correction of 1 instead of 0.5 is attributed to Edwards [5] by Fleiss,[6] resulting in a similar equation:
\chi^2 = {(|b-c|-1)^2 \over b+c}.
Under the null hypothesis, with a sufficiently large number of discordant (cells b and c), has a chi-squared distribution with 1 degree of freedom. If either b or c is small (b + c < 25) then \chi^2is not well-approximated by the chi-squared distribution. The binomial distribution can be used to obtain the exact distribution for an equivalent to the uncorrected form of McNemar's test statistic. In this formulation, b is compared to a binomial distribution with size parameter equal to b + c and "probability of success" = ½, which is essentially the same as the binomial sign test. For b + c < 25, the binomial calculation should be performed, and indeed, most software packages simply perform the binomial calculation in all cases, since the result then is an exact test in all cases. When comparing the resulting \chi^2statistic to the right tail of the chi-squared distribution, the p-value that is found is two-sided, whereas to achieve a two-sided p-value in the case of the exact binomial test, the p-value of the extreme tail should be multiplied by 2.
If the \chi^2result is significant, this provides sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis, in favor of the alternative hypothesis that pb ≠ pc, which would mean that the marginal proportions are significantly different from each other.
Table XXVI
Performance & Satisfaction
Performance
Satisfaction
0
1
0
0
11
1
18
43

Table XXVII
Performance & New methods
Performance
New methods
0
1
0
11
0
1
14
47

Table XXVIII
Satisfaction & Team work
Satisfaction
Team work
0
1
0
0
18
1
19
35

Table XXIX
Performance & Team work
Performance
Team work
0
1
0
11
0
1
8
53

Table XXX
Satisfaction & New methods
Satisfaction
New methods
0
1
0
0
18
1
25
29

Table XXXI
Team work & New methods
Team work
New methods
0
1
0
19
0
1
6
47

Table XXXII
Test Statisticsc

Performance & Satisfaction
Performance & New methods
Satisfaction & Team work
Performance & Team work
Satisfaction & New methods
Team work & New methods
N
72
72
72
72
72
72
Chi-Squarea
1.241

.000

.837

Asymp. Sig.
.265

1.000

.360

Exact Sig. (2-tailed)

.000b

.008b

.031b
a. Continuity Corrected
b. Binomial distribution used.
c. McNemar Test

The McNemar test is applied in a before-after situation to judge the difference between responses provided by the employees before and after occurrence of the training. It is being observed that association between Performance & New methods, Performance & Teamwork and Teamwork & New methods are significant.


Managerial Implications
The study is exploratory in nature and is primarily aimed at finding what the employees feel about the effectiveness of Training and Development as a useful HRD tool. At the same time it revealed a lot about the role of training and development in maintaining and enhancing the organizational success and achievements. There are several key findings for this study. First, the effectiveness and efficacy of a training program are dependent on evaluation of training quality, course design and learning experience. Next, employee satisfaction is found to be influenced by work environment, company values and job responsibilities. Findings from this study have important managerial implications for retail franchisers and individual franchisees on how to enhance the job satisfaction of employees by the provision of effective training and development programmes.
The outcome of the Wilcoxon sign Rank Tests reveal that with respect to Satisfaction – performance, Satisfaction – performance,  New methods – Satisfaction are not found to be significant implying that the data do not come from the same population. Though it is observed that for New methods – performance, Teamwork – performance and New methods – Teamwork, the responses exhibit significant relationship indicating the same type of responses provided by the respondents. The McNemar test results exhibit that the association between Performance & New methods, Performance & Teamwork and Teamwork & New methods are significant.
This empirical study has made a major contribution in adding to the limited body of empirical knowledge on the influence of training and development on job satisfaction in retail franchising. It is hoped that this paper will encourage more academics to investigate the impact of training and development on job satisfaction and retention in franchising.
Limitations of this study and Scope for Future Research:

i)              The study is restricted to limited respondents. Greater the sample size greater the reliability of the results. But in spite of relatively small sample size, considerable homogeneity in inference may be obtained.

ii)             The study is confined to Retail Outlets (Shopping Mallls) in DDelhi NCR  and hence does not claim to provide a representative picture of the entire employee fraternity of the country due to obvious constraints like accessibility and sensitive nature of the issues involved.

iii)            A future study could take into account both these shortfalls and conduct research involving a larger multi-locational sample to lend it representative character.

  
 
Appendix
Questionnaire
 Dear Respondents,
I shall remain glad if you kindly provide some training related activities that you have undergone since you have joined your organization. The purpose of this study is purely academic and your identity will not be disclosed. Please spare ten minutes of your valuable time to complete this questionnaire.
Thanking You,
Yours sincerely
                                                                                                           
               Do you like to attend the training program?           
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No            [   ]        

               Do you feel training is necessary for any employee for developing his/her skills?
a.            Yes          [   ]        
b.            No            [   ]        

               Which technique is most suitable for training?
a.            On the Job             [   ]        
b.            Off the Job            [   ]        
c.            Depends on Need [   ]        

               Which method is most suitable for training?
a.            Step by Step Instruction        [   ]        
b.            Coaching / Lecture                [   ]        
c.            Conference / Discussions     [   ]        
d.            Programmed Instructions.     [   ]        

               Do you experience fruitful changes in working efficiency after being trained?
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No           [   ]        

               Does training improve performance?
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No           [   ]        

               On what level the training is provided?
a.            Rigorous [   ]        
b.            Smooth  [   ]        

               Does the training enhance organization effectiveness?
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No           [   ]        

               Do you get innovative ideas during training?
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No           [   ]        

               Does training builds up team work?
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No           [   ]        

               Do training results in adoption to new working methods?
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No           [   ]        

               Are you satisfied with the training procedure?
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No            [   ]        

               Do all the employers in your organization attend whole day training?
a.            Yes         [   ]        
b.            No           [   ]    

Please Check Your Profile:

Since how many years you are working in this company?
a.            0-1 Years                             [   ]        
b.            2-3Years                               [   ]        
c.            4-5 Years                              [   ]        
d.            More than 5 Years                [   ]     

 Please check your age category:
a.            Less than 20 Years               [   ]        
b.            20-25 Years                          [   ]        
c.            26-30 Years                          [   ]        
d.            More than 30 Years              [   ]     

  
Please check your educational qualification:
a.            Passed 10th.standard            [   ]        
b.            Passed 12th.standard            [   ]        
c.            Graduate               and above             [   ]        



Demographic Profile:
Please check your gender                          Male   O       Female O

Please check your age group:  Below 25 yrs   O 25 to 35 yrs O   35 to 45 yrs O  above 46 yrs O

Please check your tenure of service:     Below 2 years   O   2-5 years O More than 5 years O


Your Qualification:  Below:  12th.standard O   Under-Graduate O    Graduate and above O



THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND COOPERATION

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